According to the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Guidebook...
There is increasing public interest in exploring alternatives to the use of animals
in research and testing. IACUCs regularly consider the question, "Is there an alternative
to using live animals in this proposal?" Some suggest that the only acceptable alternatives
are those that completely replace animals, while others have less restrictive definitions.
The definition of alternatives that allows a degree of common understanding was developed
by Russell and Burch, and is referred to as the three "Rs"- replacement, refinement,
Listed below are helpful resources that provide additional information on alternatives:
AGRICOLA AGRICultural OnLine Access: Bibliographic database of citations to publications and
resources encompassing all aspects of agriculture and allied disciplines, including
animal and veterinary sciences, entomology, plant sciences, forestry, aquaculture
and fisheries, farming and farming systems, agricultural economics, extension and
education, food and human nutrition, and earth and environmental sciences. Coverage
Altweb (Johns Hopkins) Provides a search engine to find information on alternative procedures.
Center for Animal Alternatives (UC-Davis)
PubMed Citations and abstracts for articles published in journals in medicine, life science
and health administrations.
NAL Animals Use Alternatives Thesaurus Produced by the US National Agricultural Library,
this site provides a classification of terminology relating to alternatives and animal
RePORTERThe CRISP system has been replaced by the RePORT Expenditures and Results (RePORTER)
query tool. This new tool retains all of the features of CRISP while providing additional
query fields, hit lists that can be sorted and downloaded to Excel, NIH funding for
each project (expenditures), and the publications and patents that have acknowledged
support from each project (results). RePORTER also provides links to PubMed Central,
PubMed, and the US Patent & Trademark Office Patent Full Text and Image Database for
more information on research results.
TOXLINE National Library on Medicine's extensive collection of online bibliographic information
covering the biochemical, pharmacological, physiological, and toxicological effects
of drugs and other chemicals.
Johns Hopkins University - Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing